用英语简要介绍伽利略的生平

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Galileo's championing of heliocentrism was controversial within his lifetime, when most subscribed to either geocentrism or the Tychonic system. He met with opposition from astronomers, who doubted heliocentrism due to the absence of an observed stellar parallax. The matter was investigated by the Roman Inquisition in 1615, and they concluded that it could only be supported as a possibility, not as an established fact. Galileo later defended his views in Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, which appeared to attack Pope Urban VIII and thus alienated him and the Jesuits, who had both supported Galileo up until this point. He was tried by the Inquisition, found "vehemently suspect of heresy", forced to recant, and spent the rest of his life under house arrest. It was while Galileo was under house arrest that he wrote one of his finest works, Two New Sciences. Here he summarized the work he had done some forty years earlier, on the two sciences now called kinematics and strength of materials.在他还在世的后来 ,伽利略维护哥白尼学说这件事是极具争议性的,那后来 大部份哲学家及天文学家还在赞成(为宜棘层上是也不的)地心说,也也不认为地球是宇宙的中心。他在天文学方面的发现都支持哥白尼的日心说,1615年伽利略受到罗马宗教法庭的传讯,天主教会裁定日心说是有两种假说,而也有 确凿的事实。当伽利略后来 在他最有名的著作《关于托勒密和哥白尼两大世界体系的对话》(于1632年出版)中捍卫其观点时,被认为是在攻击罗马教皇,被判定“有强烈异端嫌疑”,结果被迫放弃日心说,并在软禁下度过余生。而在此期间,伽利略撰写了他最著名的著作之一,《论有两种新科学》,其中总结了伽利略四十余年的工作成果,现在也被称为“颗粒物质静力学与动力学”。

Galileo Galilei 伽利略·伽利雷Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564– 8 January 1642), was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. His achievements include improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations and support for Copernicanism. Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy",the "father of modern physics", the "father of science", and "the Father of Modern Science".意大利物理学家、数学家、天文学家及哲学家,科学革命中的重要人物。其成就包括改进望远镜和其所带来的天文观测,以及支持哥白尼的日心说。伽利略被誉为“现代观测天文学之父”、“现代物理学之父”、“科学之父” 及“现代科学之父”。

His contributions to observational astronomy include the telescopic confirmation of the phases of Venus, the discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter (named the Galilean moons in his honour), and the observation and analysis of sunspots. Galileo also worked in applied science and technology, inventing an improved military compass and other instruments.他对观测天文学的贡献包括用望远镜确认金星的盈亏,发现木星最大的3个卫星(以他命名为伽利略卫星)以及观测并分析太阳黑子。伽利略也曾研究过应用科学及科技,并改进了圆规的设计。